随着电子商务的快速发展, 中小件快递数量急剧增多, 快递行业最后一公里配送面临诸多挑战, 亟需更高效、更环保的配送模式. 小型无人机具有配送效率高、成本低、环保、部署灵活等优点, 受到物流行业和学术界的广泛关注. 针对无人机在最后一公里配送中的创新应用与路径规划问题, 系统总结了当前4类典型配送模式: 无人机独立配送(一机多包配送模式、无人机中继停靠配送模式), 车和无人机并行配送(无人机和卡车并行配送模式、带中转点的无人机和卡车并行配送模式), 车和无人机协同配送(无人机同车起降配送模式、无人机异车起降配送模式、无人机-公共交通协同配送模式、无人机送货取货一体配送模式、无人机卡车途中起降配送模式), 车和无人机混合配送(无人机-卡车多模式融合配送模式). 然后, 对无人机最后一公里配送路径规划算法进行分类总结, 并梳理了现有无人机参与最后一公里配送的相关测试数据集. 最后, 探讨了最后一公里配送中无人机的未来应用与研究方向.
With the rapid development of e-commerce, the number of small and medium-sized express delivery has increased sharply. The last-mile delivery in the express industry faces many challenges, and a more efficient and environmentally friendly delivery mode is urgently needed. Small drone featuring high delivery efficiency, low cost, environmental protection, and flexible deployment attracts widespread attention from the logistics industry and academic community. Aiming at the innovative application and routing of drones in last-mile delivery, this study systematically summarizes the current four typical delivery modes. The modes include drone-independent delivery (one drone with multi-parcel delivery, drone relay docking and delivery), parallel drone-vehicle delivery (parallel drone-truck delivery and parallel drone-truck delivery with transit points), coordinated drone-vehicle delivery (drone take-off and landing delivery in the same truck, drone take-off and landing delivery in different trucks, drone-public transport coordinated delivery, pick-up and delivery with drones, and route truck-drone delivery), integrated drone-vehicle delivery (multi-mode integrated drone-truck delivery). Then, routing algorithms of the last-mile drone delivery are classified and summarized. The relevant test data sets of drones participating in the last-mile delivery are sorted out. Finally, the future application and research direction of drones in the last-mile delivery are discussed.