Abstract:This paper briefly describes three multipoint conferencing modes, and analyzes the multi-point controller and multi-point processor design method. To address the audio data overflow in the mixing process, it introduces the overflow of several commonly used algorithms and their performance. Finally, the factors that affect the MultiSite Qos analysis are proposed based on the terminal Qos policy.
Abstract:Data collection is important and basic in CPS. It will obtain the real-time data from the distributed field devices and transmit them to the information processing layer. This paper introduces the system’s design, functional modules and the coupling and extensibility of the hardware platform with combination of the industrial data collection meter which is designed and realized by the author’s group. Industrial data collection by Ethernet can play a significant role in the industrial automation and informationalization
Abstract:On the basis of semantic information extraction with ontology, this paper proposes a framework of semantic information extraction system based on personal information domain and extends semantic extraction from the WEB area to the personal information domain. Building four ontologies including webpage, Emails, local database and file system, the system implements data communication in personal information domain with semantic association among their ontologies. Then the process of semantic information extraction system is described in detail. With an example of Email domain, relevant semantic information extraction algorithms are designed.
Abstract:According to research and production of information sharing in the league, based on the cloud calculation model of information sharing system of r&d alliances, through the analysis of information interaction and reusable service entity, process planning and implementation are carried out based on Web-service standard. Through the design program of XML gateway, local application of seamless integration between clouds service and mixed cloud calculation model is realized.
Abstract:Network traffic management is a significant technology to ensure network QoS. At first, this paper analyzes the key technologies of network traffic management, including traffic identification technology and control technology. Then, a strategy of network traffic management system is proposed. To address the deficiencies of mensuration and precision of main network traffic rate control technology TCR, an improved traffic rate control model is proposed. This model makes the rate control more effective and accurate. Finally, a network traffic management prototype system is implemented based on Linux OS and netfilter firewall framework. Experimental test shows the effectiveness and the accuracy of this system.
Abstract:Pear scab(Venturia pirina)is one of the most serious diseases on Dangshansu Pear. every year, pear peasants suffer much loss from this disease. There are many reports on expert systems for the diagnosis and prevention of fruit diseases. But an expert system for the integreted management on dangshansu pear scab has not been reported. Based on the information of pear scab and the practice experiece of the experts on plants diseases, combining with the current development of Dangshansu Pear in the area of Yellow River, this paper describes an expert system for the integreted management on Dangshansu Pear scab based on CBR and RBR with Visual Basic6.0 and Photoshop softwares. The system is composed of 2 sub systems “the forecasting and preventing system of Dangshansu Pear scab” and “a design support system for integrated prevention and cure on Dangshansu Pear scab”. The system is comprehensive and its interface is simple and easy to use. It can help many agricultual experts and peasants in the area of Yellow River .
Abstract:This paper introduces a handheld geographic information reporting system based on SMS and Windows Mobile which can be used to gather geographic information by taking advantage of existing mobile communication network from monitored users whose handheld devices include GPS receiver. The system utilizes Short Message Service (SMS), which covers a wide range, as the method of data exchanging to report the geographic information from handholders to the monitor. What’s more, SMS communication is reliable, cheap and wide.
Abstract:This paper analyzes the characteristics of the automobile trade market and proposes the functions and system architecture of the automobile trade information search engine. Based on the research of Lucene’s functions and structure, it presents the strategy to implement the information gathering modle, index creation module and information query module in detail. It improves the Vector Space Model (VSM) by using the weighted values of automobile information, realizes the similar automobile information recommendation function, and completes the design of the automobile trade information search engine.
Abstract:High resolution texture is the most commonly used method to strengthen terrain authenticity. The huge higher data of solution texture have surpassed the limits of the computer graph render equipment. Therefore, it needs the piecemeal texture. In order to address the insufficiency of the conventional manual texture piecemeal, this paper has produced the image texture automatic piecemeal principle and method, and proposed a dynamic multi-resolutions texture model. It gets texture resolution method based on the viewpoint, and designs the data construction to management texture and the database memory program. The experiment proves that this method does not only reduce the demonstration quality, but is also able to effectively reduce the texture quantity and obtain a better visible effect.
Abstract:To address the problem of extracting perception information difficultly in making intelligent digital role, we propose the concept of differential according perception and according to it design a perception model based on the snake. A new process of pretreatment of information has been inserted between obtaining information and information processing, which will inosculate all input information. The pretreatment relies on the mathematic model of artificial neural net, which could better reconstruct the object focused by digital role with the differential information. The intelligent role designed with our policy has faster real-time response, and can finish the task accurately.
Abstract:Today software upgrades to have new features or capabilities, or to keep maintenance which is still the primary cause to inaccessibility of network system. The design of In-Service Software Upgrade (ISSU) system of redundant route processors takes advantage of Nonstop Forwarding with Stateful Swit- chover(NSF/ SSO), patching, IPC and hardware redundance to permit true in-service software upgrades or version changes while continuously forwarding user traffic. In the upgrading process of the compatibility check and rollback timer design are considered. So the ISSU system have faster upgrades, minimal impact to service and higher availability.
Abstract:To make face detection accurate and in real-time, this paper proposes the face detection method based on the skin-color model of AdaBoost. It can improve the accuracy of the AdaBoost results by applying color characteristics to the AdaBoost. The experimental results show that the method can make more faces detection, reduce the computation and satisfy the real-time demand.
Abstract:Considering the level of risk influence and the cost of risk reduction, this paper establishes fuzzy linear programming to design the risk control program and gives a solution algorithm. The model aims to minimize the risk of software project with a restriction of the total cost of risk control. Case studies show that the model can help software project managers to develop better risk control programs.
Abstract:For K-Means clustering algorithm, the k value must be determined in advance and can’t be changed. How- ever, the value is usually not the best if it is determined by experience. In this paper, fitness is taken into account to look for optimal number automatically in the mutation operations. Also, genetic operation is used to select the centers accordingly. In addition, the global optimization capability of genetic algorithm can overcome the locality of K-Means clustering algorithm. The experimental results show that this algorithm has better global searching capability and can efficiently improve the clustering result by adjusting the k value automatically.
Abstract:It is necessary to track the rat in a Morris Water Maze for the research on spatial learning and memory of laboratory rats. In this paper, a video analysis system based on template matching and trajectory prediction is developed in order to effectively and accurately track the trajectories of the rats in the Morris Water Maze videos. The system can be automatically configured to any Morris Water Maze. Simple mouse operations are done to quickly and effectively locate the maze and the escape platform. Separation of the rat from the maze is based on the maximum interclass variance algorithm. A minimum area searching strategy based on template matching and trajectory prediction is developed to track and identify the swimming rat in the maze. Repeated experiments show that the system is reliable and can effectively identify and track the rat and obtain all the behavior parameters.
Abstract:This paper proposes a method of P2P validation based on CDN network, which can solve the problem of user verification in P2P network effectively. The realization process is as follows. Firstly, the system architecture of P2P network is analyzed, and then the P2P verified principle based on CDN network is discussed. Finally, the P2P verified process is extracted based on CDN network. It shows that the method proposed in this paper cannot only solve the problem of user verification in P2P network but also improves the efficiency and accuracy of verification.
Abstract:As one of the three mainstream technologies in the 3rd generation mobile communication IMT-2000, WCDMA uses OVSF as its channelization codes, which can support a variety of rate requests. The variable length feature of OVSF codes can meet the multirate traffic requirements in communication, and its orthogonal nature can reduce the mutual interference between channels. This paper studies OVSF codes and verifies the orthogonality of OVSF codes in theory through MATLAB simulation. It introduces the single-code assignment, dynamic code assignment and the dynamic code assignment fulfilling different QoS requirements by stage. It also compares the system throughput and code blocking probability of each single-code assignment algorithm by simulation to verify the performance of various algorithms.
Abstract:This paper presents a new high-performance audio compression algorithm for wireless application. Based on blue-tooth SBC algorithm architecture, the proposed algorithm adopts nearly perfect reconstructable proto filter and dynamic bit allocation technology to improve audio quality and performance. This algorithm was implemented on 32-bit CKA5102 MCU, and successfully applied to current wireless audio solution. Experiments show that compared with blue-tooth SBC, the proposed algorithm gains much improvement on audio quality, while having less cost in bitstream and power.
Abstract:With the development of secure authentication technologies, network authentication has already become an important approach to protect network security. IEEE802.1x, the widely used authentication protocol, is based on the Extensible Authentication Protocol(EAP). EAP provides a lot of specific protocols, most of which have their own advantages and disadvantages. The disvantages include lacking protection of user name and mutual authentication and difficulty in deployment. This paper presents a new hash-based authen- tication protocol, which aims to avoid the above disadvantages of protocols. Authentication process and security analysis is explained in detail. Comparison with some protocols is also provided.
Abstract:Data communication in Centralized control pattern is a new method in the experimental information monitor and display software system, which can realize the functions including consolidated data- communicated interface, consolidated control, and the procedure of task flow. This method can save manpower resource, opitimize task mode and improve the veracity and reliability in the satellite launching mission. This article expounds the key technology. Furthermore, process communications, process synch- ronization, agent mechanism and memeory mapping are also discussed in detail.
Abstract:In the object recognition based on original SIFT algorithm, the calculation of the feature descriptor is complex and the time of feature point matching is long, so a fast SIFT algorithm is proposed. The fast algorithm takes cumulative gray-scale value and its difference in a concentic circular window to construct a simplified feature descriptor with 16 dimension, and it matches feature points according to a coarse-to-fine pyramid structure when recognising the object. Experiments show that, under the premise of ensuring the recognition accuracy, the computation time of the proposed fast algorithm is reduced two orders of magnitude compared with the original SIFT algorithm, so the proposed algorithm has a good real-time performance.
Abstract:In this paper, the security issues in the interlinkage between Ad Hoc networks and lineate networks are investigated. An intrusion detection system for the interlinkage between two networks is established and a model which can realize the interlinkage between Ad Hoc and lineate networks is presented. This scheme is based on combination of misuse detection and anomaly detection. It combines the two technologies to reduce the false positive rate and the false negative rate in only one detection technology, and then security of intrusion detection system is improved.
Abstract:This paper presents the features and differences of NS2 and OPNET by comparing them in the aspects of software technique, operation method and engineer performance. As to the software technique, it includes four points for comparison: system architecture, supported network technique, network equipment model bank and software scalability. To compare the performance of the simulator engine, an abstract network which is not real was established and simulated by these two simulators separately under identical conditions. Meanwhile, two performance indices (memory consumption and computation time) were measured, recorded and analyzed. The comparison result indicates that OPENT as a commercial software is better than NS2 in user-friendliness, simulation speed and memory consumption while NS2 is superior to OPNET in the aspect of open-source and scalability and well suited for small scale network simulation.
Abstract:One of the important research areas in WSNs topology control is how to design the clustering algorithms on condition that nodes know their precision position. This paper presents an in-depth study on topology control in order to improve energy efficiency. It proposes a novel topology control scheme, and simulates the scheme in MATLAB. The results show that the energy consumption of the scheme is low, and the proposed scheme is fitful for the large scale networks and can effectively stretch the lifetime of WSNs.
Abstract:This paper implements MCS-51 microcontroller embedded Internet connecting technology. The microcontroller communicates with Internet through Ethernet network interface card ATL8019AS. The reduced TCP/IP protocol stack--uIP protocol suit, which is open source code program, drives the bottom network devices. Some application services are realized based on API of uIP. Finally, the thesis provides the electronic circuit and main program of MCU. A monitoring system for parking is realized with the application of MCU embedded Interent.
Abstract:Adobe Flash is a multimedia format standard in PC. However, Adobe has not provided a solution in embedded platform. In order to play Flash file in embedded device, this paper uses Gnash which is a GUN open source Flash solution to play Flash file in ARM embedded Linux. It analyses the framework of gansh. It also researches various functional modules and discusses the relations between functional modules and operating system platform. Because embedded environment has low clock speed and limited memory, the paper cuts off some Gnash's modules, e.g. interactive modules, which is not mandatory while ActionScript engine plays movies. And the Gnash is run in the Intel PXA270 Linux platform successfully.
Abstract:Facsimile, as a traditional transmission method of static image file, is an important part of modern communication technology. This paper analyses the status of facsimile over IP (FOIP), compares the Storage- and-Forward and Real-Time implementation standards, then based on embedded SIP voice gateway gives the design and implementation of the pure software T.38 real-time facsimile module. This module is composed of T.30 Soft Modem, processing PCM data, and T.38 protocol stack processing IFP packets. These two parts exchange data through DATAPUMP. This module has weak coupling and high portability, and has been put into practice.
Abstract:The problem of protocol decoupling and assembling for different components had plagued the software developers. Web service composition and SCA assembly specification provided optional solutions. However, these solutions have limitations. In this paper, the idea of the assembly about SOA component is put forward. Through Tuscany with SCA specification and Spring with AOP, this paper proposes a solution to the problem. It also verifies the solution through the bank’s internal transfer of business.
Abstract:Firstly, this paper discusses the development trends of management system of computer room, and points out the shortcomings of billing systems in computer room management generally used. Secondly, it studies about how to balance the load, how to make full use of teaching resources, how to reduce the workload of the managers of a computer room, and how to improve the utilization efficiency of a computer room. Finally, it proposes a smart billing system in computer room management, which well solves the problems in computer room management systems.
Abstract:This paper analyses the applications, advantages and disadvantages of current testing tools. It designs an automatic testing tool named open ATF, that is web-UI friendly, easy to operate, and feature-targeted. It also presents a testing scheme about generating test and executing automatically case with multi-method and multi-step. Users can conveniently input the testcase data and expect result. Through applying it in testing the system of Guangzhou Metro AFC, the results show that it can improve the quality and efficiency of testing to a large degree, and save human resources and gurantee reliability.
Abstract:This paper synthetically analyzes the situation and the growing trend of the engineering drawing information management system. Based on the characteristics of manufacturing industry, the paper offers a proposal suitful for the drawing information management of the manufacturing industry. It introduces the present technology on database and the system framework, and analyzes the framework S: C/S and B/S by comparison. It selects VS 2005 as the developing tool and SQL Server 2005 as the database supply and sets up an engineering drawing information management system.
Abstract:According to the reality of campus network’s double-export，this article designs and applies an optimized strategy of double-export routing based on firewall. After analyzing the campus practice and the importance to optimize the double-export routing, a new optimized strategy is designed which can balance the flux between two exports by static routing and NAT technology. An actual configuration and application of interface and area, routing and NAT, the syslog of the firewall are given. So the strategy can be applied in the double-export of campus network to achieve high speed and stability.
Abstract:Based on bit commitment, this paper designs an e-lottery scheme which does not involve a trusted third party. This scheme does not assume all the purchasers are online. It overcomes the limitation of the purchasers’ computing power and does not need to involve a trusted third party. There are many security properties in this scheme, such as unforgeability, impartiality, publicly verification and so on. This scheme also maintains compatibility with the traditional lottery.
Abstract:For the extremely frequent changes in e-commerce users’ interest, a linear-attenuation based user profile is proposed. The registered information and browsing behaviors are used to set up the initial chain user preference list. The User Profile is made up of all users’ chain preference list. User ratings decrease at a fixed time interval until the rating has been eliminated to zero. User preference value is probably updated by a new rating in the course of attenuation. The efficiency of user profile is proved by the experiment.
Abstract:Ontology evolution has become more and more important in domain ontology research. The evolution requirements are the basis of Ontology evolution. This paper gives the model for auto-generated require- ments of domain ontology evolution based on text. First, it extracts relevant concepts from natural text, and then uses the weighted-frequency-algorithm to determine whether the relevant concepts are the key concepts. Last, it combines the ontology-search-algorithm with the rules of evolution requirements, and automatically generates the requirements of ontology evolution.
Abstract:In fingerprint image pre-processing，fingerprint image binarization processing is a key step in a direct impact on the quality of fingerprint image thinning and accuracy of the extraction of the minutiaes. After an in-depth analysis of information entropy of fingerprint images, information entropy is introduced to the fingerprint image binarization algorithm. Through calculating a maximum entropy of the corresponding the region in fingerprint image, binarization threshold is estimated, and based on the achievement of this threshold fingerprint image binarization processing is done. The experimental results show that the algorithm is robust to noise and able to effectively realize the fingerprint image binarization.
Abstract:The present peer-to-peer trust models are too coarse and lack ability of synthesizing the feedback. This paper presents a new fine-grained trust model for P2P networks based on grey relation. The peers are divided into different regions according to interest and speciality, and the direct trust is gained by colligating the evaluation for all attributes of one service. A memory factor is introduced to describe the characteristic that trust trail off along with time. The grey relation is used to measure the accurateness of feedback. Analysis and experiments show that compared with existing models, the proposed model evaluates peer’s trust value more accurately and it has better capability to resist the attack by the dynamic malice peers and peer’s dishonest feedback.
Abstract:Two typical rail inspection systems based on image processing are introduced, especially the system configureation and work principle of the KSIR Inspection cars(Russion). The development of measuring for contact wire wear is summarized. And the status of the train synthesize inspection car in China has been reviewed. In the end, the trend of the inspection based on the computer vision technology in the future has been discussed.
Abstract:Based on the tunneling technique IPv6-over-IPv4, a newly added Campus Network of IPv6 is developed. The topological diagram is designed. Static routers’ ports are set and IP addresses are distributed. The configuration commands of routers are analyzed respectively. Several factors such as server load and network delays and network throughput are analyzed. Thus, transparent connection with IPv6-over-IPv4 is implemented based on the tunneling principle. And a technical method is provided for IPv4/IPv6 co-existing network.
Abstract:Taking advantage of adaptive learning classification of wavelet neural networks, this paper proposes multiple wavelet neural networks used in parallel to improve the wavelet network structure. It also determines the number of wavelet neuron and the appropriate initialization wavelet in each wavelet feature space. The X-ray energy spectrum of drugs and explosives are identified by multiple wavelet neural network. Experiments show that the identification of different types of drugs and explosives can be achieved by multiple wavelet neural network, which provides an effective method for the technology of X-ray energy dispersive used in detection and identification of drugs and explosives.
Abstract:For the problem of service publishing and discovery in traditional centralized mechanism and that of service workflow binding static service at flow design stage, this paper proposes a method of using service classification based 3-layer chord to organize services and the model of logical workflow interacting with resource layer. Web service classification model is introduced first. Then, structured p2p resource layer is modeled, and the method of logical workflow definition is introduced. Finally, four functional modules including process matching, service discovery, service selecting and service binding to realize the mapping from logical workflow to executable workflow are designed.
Abstract:The retrieval technique based on shape feature is one of the hotspots in image retrieval research. This paper puts forward a retrieval method based on image shape and direction energy. This method has two steps: first, do some basic treatments of the image, including denoising, procuring and thinning the edges and adjusting the angles; second, according to the energy accumulation of the eight directions of the image, make unitary processing to get cumulative energy data. In the end, this paper briefly states the design of the image intelligent retrieval system, and through the application of this system offers some image retrieval effects based on direction energy retrieval.
Abstract:Traditional warehouse systems cannot do real-time analysis due to its relatively long data extraction period. In order to improve it, this paper puts forward a real-time data warehouse implementation method. This method adopts copying table structure and setting limitation on querying to loading data in data warehouse consistently and effectively. It also demonstrates how to integrate the real-time data by using the data warehouse architecture and OLTP queries in client.
Abstract:An RTP-based method of labial synchronization in H.323 video conference system is described. This scheme strictly obeys the RTP protocol, but brings the audio and video data into mutual connection for transmission via the same media channel, to achieve the purpose of labial synchronization. Experiments show that the scheme has not only little influence on the image quality, but also achieves a very good synchronous player of audio and video. This method is easy for operation. It has little burden on the system and can be used widely.
Abstract:Intelligent video surveillance is a development trend of Industrial Automation. In order to monitor steel pipe production efficiently and independent, this paper proposes a new method to extract moving target. The new method considers the movement of product line as static background based on the theory of Relative Motion. With static background library, it can update background adaptively and extract moving target according to background difference. It is proved that the new method uses less resources and has high reliability
Abstract:The Voice Activity Detector(VAD) of G.729B in VoIP can only work well in the high SNR, while in the low SNR or with a strong background noise it works poorly. To tackle this problem, the VAD2 mechanism of AMR is researched in detail and the possibility of introducing it into the G.729B is discussed. At the same time, some optimization work is also done. Through Matlab simulation, the optimized VAD2 is proved better by comparing it with the VAD algorithm of G.729B in both the high and low SNR, and its detection time is shortened greatly. So the optimized VAD2 can be used in G.729B.
Abstract:Widespread in nature Texture, texture is the most essential properties of the surface. Texture analysis has been a hotspot in research. As the primary task of texture analysis, texture feature extraction is the focus of study. This paper puts forward a texture features extraction method for the five kinds of wood grain with the gray level co-occurrence matrix. The MATLAB simulation results show that the gray level co-occurrence matrix generated by the four texture features can effectively describe the texture characteristics of wood with good differentiation
Abstract:Software estimation is an important prerequisite for project development management. The complexity of the software, the lack of historical experience, the incompleteness of estimating tools as well as human errors, often lead to software project estimation results far from the reality. In order to improve the estimation results, from a management point of view, the key estimation points in common software development model and the corresponding methods which can be used, are designated in light of the software life-cycle theory and COCOMO Ⅱ model, and what basic essences estimator should have are proposed and their positions in a typical software organization are pointed out. Finally, an application example is given to illustrate how to apply these measuring points by using a free software tool provided by the USC.
Abstract:To improve display speed of DICOM medical image with continuously adjusting window values, this paper describes the transformation of manufacturer dependent pixel values of DICOM medical image into pixel values that are meaningful for display, and proposes a solution using LUT. Finally, the Bresenham algorithm is proposed to improve the LUT generation algorithm. A good result is got and an affirmation from doctors is made in practice.
Abstract:After introducing Java stored procedures in Oracle database and its development steps, this paper discusses how to develop Java stored procedures to achieve Oracle remote logical backup and restoration through an example. Practice shows that Java stored procedure dose not only have the advantages of improving the efficiency and maintainability of system, and enhancing system security, etc., but also provides a good solution to the client to achieve complex application in the network environment.
Abstract:In this paper, a multi-instance learning-based CBIR (content-based image retrieval) approach is presented, and multi-instance learning is applied in CBIR in order to deal with the inherent ambiguity of images. First of all, the whole image is regarded as a multi-instance bag. Secondly, the image is partitioned into a number of regions using Adaptive k-means image segmentation method. Then query images posed by the user are transformed into corresponding positive and negative bags and a EM-DD algorithm is employed for image retrieval and relevance feedback. Finally, the users can get satisfactory results.
Abstract:This paper firstly introduces the technical features and internal structure of SQlite, a kind of embedded database. Then, it analyzes the transplantion and encapsulation of SQlite in Windows ce.net operation system. Finally, it researches how to carry out RAPI remote control of Windows CE intelligent devices on this foundation.
Abstract:This paper presents a design of projector lift control based on dual processor atmega8 and stm32f101 and introduces its circuit composition, function and software processor. In the design, stm32f101 is responsible for motor control, and Atmega8 is responsible for data collection. The processors communicate through the I2C bus. The system uses an infrared remote control or external keystroke, or it can also use pc-on-line. The test verifies that the design is proper and effective and its fixed-point accuracy meets the practical requirement.
Abstract:Human eye detection is the hotspot in the field of computer vision and pattern recognition and it has broad application prospects. This paper comprehensively surveys the relative technologies of eyes detection and orientation, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of each method. It proposes the difficulties of eyes detection and the solutions of them. Finally, it looks forward to development trend of the eyes detection technologies.
Abstract:To address the problems in the current process of enterprise informationalization, this paper systematically discusses the relationship between business management and IT governance and focuses on the analysis of enterprise IT governance model. It puts forward the goal of enterprise IT governance and architecture. And based on this, it proposes the enterprise IT governance framework for building methods.
Abstract:Conceptual modeling of information systems starting from the beginning of this century is a new subject which plays an important role in the quality assurance of the development, acquisition, adaptation, standardization and integration of information systems. This paper expounds the meaning and scope of conceptual modeling of information systems, the types of conceptual modeling techniques and its performance evaluation. It also studies the content and form of conceptual models and its quality assessment, as well as conceptual modeling context to tackle the existing problems and meet the future demand. This paper intends to provide reference for follow-up research on conceptual modeling of information systems.
Abstract:Texture exists widely in nature and it denotes the inherent characteristics of the objects. It is very important to study texture in theory and application. This paper reviews and analyzes the research development, research results and analysis methods of texture features in detail. Finally some hot applications of texture research are given.
Abstract:This paper firstly reviews the evolvement roadmap of computer technology and the reason why service- oriented is introduced. It discusses the core ideas of SOA in detail as well as the judgment standard, the core elements of SOA, and the software development process based on SOA. It digs the essence of SOA by comparing web service to SOA, and presents some technologies which support applications based on SOA. At last, this paper discusses the future study of SOA.